May’s Consumer Price Index (CPI) jumped the most since 2009. That follows a similar gain over the past three months that has brought the total increase to 6.9% on an annualized pace. That is the largest gain in 13 years.
Excluding the notoriously volatile food and energy components, however, the “core” CPI rose by 0.7%, which was still larger than the forecast of 0.5%. Readers might scratch their head when looking at those numbers, since excluding food and energy makes little sense to us, who are faced with weekly rises in both commodities.
The difference is that the price of chicken or a $3 gallon of gas might reverse at a moment’s notice while core component prices are stickier and longer lasting. The underlying cause of these price gains are easy to explain. The economy is re-opening, sparking a rush of consumer demand. At the same time, there are shortages of materials caused by shipping bottlenecks that are leading to higher input costs, including rising wages.
Government stimulus checks and pent-up demand by consumers has led to growing backorders and below-normal inventories of goods. The used car and truck market, for example, is red hot and accounted for fully one third of the overall increase in the CPI. Consumer product companies, from fast food restaurants to women’s clothing stores (and a slew of other enterprises) are ratcheting up prices as demand continues to rise.
As if to underscore this trend, initial jobless claims fell for the sixth straight week to a new, pandemic-era low. More job gains in the weeks and months ahead may fuel this rising tide of consumer demand, and spending. But will it fuel even higher inflation?
Market pundits had predicted if inflation ran hot, investors would get even more anxious that the Fed might tighten, in which case, the markets would tumble, but they did just the opposite. A look under the hood of the core CPI number reveals inflation was not as “hot” as it first appeared. If you subtract the price increase in used cars, which the market considers transitory, the core rate was actually lower than analysts expected.
That gave the Fed’s “inflation will be transitory” argument more credence among nervous bond investors. The so-called bond vigilantes responded by driving interest rates lower. The benchmark U.S. Ten-Year Treasury Bond fell to under 1.50%.
The S&P 500 Index had been attempting to break to new highs every other day this week, only to fall back in defeat by the end of each session. The CPI announcement was the catalyst it needed to finally break out of its range to a new, all-time high. The other averages followed suit but failed to make new highs.
Lower interest rates should continue to act as support for the equity markets overall. We are entering the summer doldrums at this point, which should mean a slower tempo to the markets. I expect equities to continue their “two steps forward, one step backward” sort of advance.
The S&P 500 should climb higher (maybe another 40 points or so) through the beginning of next week. The Fed’s FOMC meeting is scheduled for mid-week, so investors will be keen to listen for any clues of future monetary policy from Central Bank Chairman Jerome Powell.
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